Andy McIntosh, DSc., FIMA, C. Math., FInstE, C. Eng. FInstP.
Creationist combustion theorist and aerodynamicist
Andy earned his Ph.D. in combustion theory from the Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedford, England, and a D.Sc. from the University of Wales. He was appointed a Fellow of the Institute of Energy (FInstE) with Chartered Engineer status (C.Eng), and became the Professor of Thermodynamics and Combustion Theory at the University of Leeds (NB: ‘professor’ in a British Commonwealth university is a title given only to the highest rank of lecturer). His research has included reducing supersonic drag of fighter planes, testing airflow through re-designed wind turbines, ignition studies of fluids and solids, pressure interactions with flames, and the movement of smoke and fire. This work involved a number of external companies and his research group has published many papers. He has also been appointed a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (FInstP). Andy is the author of Genesis for Today, a book that shows the relevance of Genesis for today's society.
Education, Employment & Awards
- 1963 - 1966 Selhurst Grammar School for Boys, Croydon, Surrey.
- 1966 - 1970 William Hulme's Grammar School, Manchester:
- 1968 GCE 'O' level (Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board): English Language 3, Mathematics 1, French 3, German 5, Latin 5, Physics 2, Chemistry 3
- 1970 GCE 'A' Level (Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board): Mathematics A, Further Mathematics A, Physics A
- 1970 - 1973 University College of North Wales, Bangor:
- 1973 BSc Degree: 1st Class Hons. in Applied Mathematics University of Wales, UCNW Bangor.
- Sept 1973 - Sept 1977 Scientific Officer, Royal Aircraft Establishment (Bedford)
- 1977 - 1980 Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedford
- 1981 PhD in Theory of Combustion. Title of Thesis: "Unsteady Premixed Laminar Flames". Aerodynamics Dept., Cranfield Institute of Technology. Supervisor: Professor J.F. Clarke.
- Oct 1980 - Apr 1982 Research Officer (supported by DOE contract), Sch. of Mech. Eng., Cranfield Inst. of Tech.
- Apr. 1982 - Sept 1984 Research Officer (supported by SERC), College of Aeronautics, Cranfield Institute of Technology.
- Sept 1984 - Dec 1985 Lecturer in Mathematics, Luton College of Higher Education.
- Jan 1986 - July 1995 Lecturer in Fuel and Energy Department, University of Leeds.
- August 1995 Reader in Combustion Theory in Fuel and Energy Department, University of Leeds.
- Aug. 1996 Appointed a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (FIMA) with Chartered Mathematician status (C. Math.).
- July 1998 Awarded DSc degree : University of Wales. Title of thesis: "Mathematical modelling of unsteady combustion processes within gases, fluids and solids".
- Sept. 1999 Appointed a Fellow of the Institute of Energy (FInstE) with Chartered Engineer status (C. Eng.).
- Aug. 2000 Appointed Professor of Thermodynamics and Combustion Theory in Fuel and Energy Department, University of Leeds.
- Jan. 2002 Appointed a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (FinstP).
- He says, "My professional research work is mainly concerning the interaction of acoustics and general pressure interactions with flames and also ignition studies, particularly with reference to safety and the danger of explosions."
Brief Overview of Research Career
Correcting the supersonic flow of a flexible liner wind tunnel.
In the period 1973-1977 whilst at the Royal Aircraft Establishment (Bedford), a major piece of work was completed involving the supersonic calibration of the 8'x8' Wind Tunnel. This is described in 2 major reports (see references 74 and 76) of what is now the Defence Research Agency. A new technique was devised (reference 14) for following the effect of disturbances emanating from the tunnel liners and thus isolating the cause of flow deterioration in supersonic flexible-liner wind tunnels. This technique involved.
Design and testing of canards to reduce supersonic drag of military aircraft.
The early testing on the forerunners of aircraft similar to the F16, involved considerable work on reducing the supersonic drag of these fighter planes, particularly where the canards are mounted. Design and testing of aircraft models in the 8'X8' wind tunnel, meant considerable experience was gained in the practical working, planning and management of a large-scale experimental facility.
Testing of airflow through Wind turbines with Tipvanes.
In the period Oct. 1980 - Apr. 1982, whilst at Cranfield Institute of Technology, experience was gained at practical low-speed aerodynamics with the testing of a novel design of horizontal axis wind turbine in the RAE 24'X24' wind tunnel at Farnborough. This had tip vanes attached to the end of the turbine blade, to attempt a reduction in the induced drag of the main blade. The data collection system was again entirely designed by myself, with signals passed through analogue to digital converters, and then analysing the data on-line at a dedicated computer.
Research into pressure interactions with flames, and the ignition of fluids and solids.
Analytical and numerical studies in 1982-1984 of unsteady multidimensional premixed laminar flames were undertaken following on from a PhD in this same area conducted under the supervision of Professor John F. Clarke FRS. After a time teaching in 1984/5, I was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Leeds in 1986, where I followed my earlier studies on unsteady premixed flames. These studies have widened to the study of ignition and over the last 15 years and led to research on a number of related themes.
- Fundamentals of pressure interactions with flames. This work laid the basis for understanding the different time and length scales associated with pressure wave interactions with existing flames. Short length scale and large length scale pressure disturbances have been investigated.
- Interaction of acoustics and flames. With British Gas sponsorship, a PhD programme was conducted where a Rijke Tube burner was built and a simple theory developed and tested concerning the acoustic transfer functions describing oscillating heat transfer of a flame near a surface. Such a mechanism encourages resonance in the tube. The principle of this type of resonance has been established in a number of practical applications where industry is seeking to eliminate it - domestic and industrial boilers, gas turbines etc.
- Low temperature autoignition of blended coals. This work (with a PhD student) investigates the low-temperature auto-ignition behaviour of different types of coal. This is because power stations now receive coal from many locations around the world, and do not rely solely on one source. Consequently the effect of blending different types of coals is important. There is a real danger of spontaneous ignition of these coals when transported in large ships to the UK and elsewhere. Many cargoes have either lost their value due to slow oxidation, or have caused a fire at sea.
- Ignition of combustible fluid and vapour within porous insulation material. Many incidents have occurred in the chemical engineering industry where combustible fluid has leaked into porous material and then (days later) ignited. Collaborative projects with the Schools of Chemistry and Mathematics have led to a practical understanding of this phenomenon, and a guide as to the type of conditions to be avoided.
- Polymer ignition - use of additives to retard ignition. The charring of textiles and furnishings is being studied as a means of retarding ignition. Support was obtained from the Raychem company which makes wire cables and is concerned for the safety of the polymer sheathing round the wires.
- Catalytic ignition - The ignition behaviour of these catalytic devices (such as catalytic converters in cars) has been studied. The prediction of under what conditions (temperature and inlet flow of gases), ignition will or will not occur, is being obtained through these investigations.
- Hot spot ignition - This project addresses the ignition behaviour of hazardous materials where there is an existing hot spot already present, due to a hot pipe or some such object nearby.
- Radiant burners - In the period 1987 - 1988 an informal link with Shell Thornton Research Centre was made. Investigations were made concerning a new type of metal fibre surface burner. The analysis revealed the practical operating regions for a surface burner and predicted the flashback and blow-off conditions. Another research group at Purdue University has also picked up this method in the last 2 years.
- Fire and Smoke movement. This work began with the supervision of an external student. A new multi-zone computer program was developed for modelling fire spread and smoke movement in accidental fires (such as the Kings Cross Underground fire in 1987) and other types of incidents. As a result a new computer code FASIT (Fire and smoke movement in tunnels) has been made and further work supported an industrially based project (NHS Estates grant "Fire and Smoke movement in hospitals) which has led to a three-dimensional version of the zone-modelling program FAS3D.
The research group has 100+ publications (not listed here) in the above research areas - mainly on flames and pressure waves/ignition of hazardous materials.
He says: "My career in mathematics and science has led me very much to the view that the world and the Universe show powerful evidence of design. As a result, I am often asked both in the UK and abroad to speak on the subject of origins."