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The Creation Answers Book
by Various

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Darwin Retried

Norman Macbeth

Adaptation, 21, l34, 146;

and survival, 41-42, 65, 68-79;
and best-in-field fallacy, 77-78, 137;
and probability, 87

Adler, Alfred, 92, 93, 97-98
Agamospermy, 23
Agassiz, Louis, 22-23
Aggression, 58
Ahneureihe, 16
Allee, W. C., 58, 59, 82-83
Allelomorphs, multiple, 50-52
Alps, 112-114
American Behavioral Scientist, 110
American Geological Society, 116
American Institute of Biological Sciences, 52
American Museum of Natural History, 15
Amoeba, 69
Amphibians, I4
Anelids, 12
Anatomy, comparative, 10-11, 148
Ancestor, 12, 14, 91, 148
Andes, 112
Animals, 3, 19;
resistance to drastic change, 34
Anti-darwinism, 73
Anti-darwinist, l02
Antelope, 148
Ape, transition to man, 141-142
Arabia 112
Archetype, 22-25
Ardrey, Robert, 45-46, 83, 84, 132, 145, 148
Argon, l09
Astrology, 97, 98
Atomic physics, l10
Australian lungfish, 121, 140
Awake, 125

Baboons, 145
Barzun, Jacques, 149
Bateson, William, 65
Bats, 11, 44, 148
Best-in-field fallacy, see Adaptation
Biogenetic law, and Haeckel, 12-13. See also Genetics.
Biogeography, 10
Biology, and religion, 126, 127
Biometry, 19
Birds, 11, and sexual selection, 82
Bi-valves, 12
Bock, W., 76
Bolshevik Revolution, 58
Bombardier beetles, 44
Bonner, John Tyler, 37, 38, 125, 135, 146
Botany, 13, 18
Brain, human, 103
Breeders, 2, 29-38; limits to variation, 32-35
Bronze Age, 113-114
Broom, Robert, 14, 94-95, 138, 140n, 141
Broom-Huxley doctrine, 35n
Bryan, William Jennings, 3n, 5, 124, 125
Burbank, Luther, 36, 37
Butler, Samuel, 149

Caesar, Julius, 119
California State Board of Education, 124
Cambrian perind, 140
Camouflage, 70
Carbon-14, 109
Catastrophe, 111-116
Cephalopods, 12
Change, see Evolution
Christianity, 126
Chronology, evolutionary, 109-111
Clark, Le Gros, 125
Classes, 19
Classification, 18-20
Climate, 113-114, 119
Coelenterates, l0l-102
Columbia Plateau, 111-112
Competition, 58-59, 119
Conklin, Edwin G., 125, 126-127
Cooperation, in nature, 58-59
Corollaries, 4, 97-104
Creationism, 125, 145
Cuckoos, 83
Cytology, 41

Darrow, Clarence, 3n, 5
Darwin Centennial Celebration, Chicago (1959), 76, 126, 135
Darwin, Charles: his modus operandi, 4;

and natural selection, 4; as
nominalist, 24;

Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, The, 82;

as an amateur, 149.
See also Origin of the Species, The

Darwinism: blind adherents to tenents of, 2,

problem and definition, 4-8, 97;
evaluation of, 97-105;
lack of predictive power, 103-104;
as total theory, 134-142

Darwin, Erasmus, 3-4
Dayton, Tennessee, 3n
DeBeer, Gavin, 6, 13, 44, 131
Deevey, Edward S., Jr., 5, 19, 36, 44-45, 59, 64, 103, 137, 149
Design v. Chance, 88, 94
Dinosaurs, 69,
Disease, I l 9
Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 6, 23, 43-44, 104, 125, 137
Dolphins, 60
Drosophila, 23, 44, 104
Drosophila melanogaster, 34

Econogy, 10, 58
Ego, 98
Einstein, Albert, 97-98
Elephants, 11, 121
Embryo, 12-13
Embryology, 10, 16
“Emergence of Evolutionary Novelties, The,” 76
Emiliani, Cesare, 109-110
Environment, 69, 140
Eocene epoch, middle, 37
Eohippus, 14-15
Equus, 14-15
“Escape from Specialization,” 140n-141n
Eumenes amedei, 71-72
Evolution, 97;

the two aspects of, 3;
acquired habits, 4;
and biology, l0-ll;
and taxonomists, 20-22;
tempo of, 37;
opportunism of, 46;
of the human eye, l00- l0l,
chronology of, 108-116;
and catastrophe, 111;
and extinction, 119;
organic, 127-130;
openendedness of, 140-141

Extinction, 69-70, 118-122.
See also Evolution
Extrapolation, 31-38
Eye, human, see Evolution

Families, 19
Family tree, 13-15, 142, 147-148
Farrand, William, 115-116
Finches, 11, 154
Fischer, David, 32n
Fish, 14
Fisher, Ronald, 5, 6, 24 50-51, 52, 85, 89-90, 91, 92, 136,137
Fitness, see Survival of the fittest
Flat-worms, 12
Flowers, 74-75
Ford, E. B., 6, 52, 136, 137
Fossils, 14; of horses, 14-15;
“living, ” 121
Freud, Sigmund, 92, 93, 97-98
Fundamentalists, 124, 138

Galapagos Islands, 20, 154
Galton, Francis, 52-53
Gamow, George, 75-76
Gams, H., 113
Genera, 19
Generation-time, 48
Genes, development of, 2;
recombination of, 40, 48
Genesis, 125
Genetic homeostasis, 34-35, 38
Genetics, 2, l0, 18, l52-163
Geology, 3
Ghiselin, Michael T., 7, 134n
Ginkgo tree, 22, 121, 140
Giraffes, 11
God, see Religion
Goethe, Johann, 35
Goldschmidt, Richard B., 33, 33n, 74, 77, 104, 125, 139n, 152-163;
The Material Basis of Evolution, 152
Gorillas, 69, 148
Gray, Asa, 73n, l0ln

Haeckel, Ernst, proponent of biogenetic law, 12-13
Haldane, J. B. S., 6, 52, 63, 63n, 120
Hands, 148-149
Hardin, Garrett, 6, 13, 15, 16, 19-20, 21, 32, 33, 52, 62, 88, 92, 100-101, 136-137, 149, 163;
Nature and Man’s Fate, 1-2
Hardy, Alister, 140n-141n
Harvard, 59, 1 54
Hawaii, 19
Height, of man, 44-45
Heredity, 2, 41
Himalayas, 112
Homer, 98, 142
Hominization, 141
Homo sapiens, 130
Hopeful monster, 33, 152-163
Horses, 11, 29, 120;
Eohippus and Equus, 14-15
Horseshoe crab, 140
Huxley, Julian S., 6, 22, 33, 43n, 66, 88;

Evolution in Action, 1-2;
and specialized forms, 14;
on genetics, 37, 38;
and natural selection, 40-41;
his mathematical methods, 52-53;
on the struggle for existence, 58, 59;
on adaptation, 68, 74-75, 76, 77;
on sexual selection, 84, 85;
on Darwinism and religion, 125, 126, 128-129;
on Darwinism as total theory, 137-139, 145-146, 147, 148

Huxley, Thomas Henry, 7, 56, 109, 127, 147n

Ice Age, 109-110, 115
Ichthyosaurs, 60
Id, 98
Insects, virtuoso work of, 71-72, 121
Interbreeding, 23
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, 24
Irish elk, 70, 73, 120
Isolation, 41, 48

Keith, Arthur, 125, 138
Kelvin, Lord, William Thomson, 108-l09
Klimsturz, 113-114

Lack, David, 5, 20, 24, 154
La Fontaine, Jean de, 73
Lamarck, Jean Baptiste, 4
Lamarckian, 43n, 152
Lamarckism, 77, 78, 136
Latimeria, 121Leakey, L. S. B., 125
Libby, Willard, 125
Lincoln, Abraham, 119
Lingula, 121, 140
Linnaeus, Carolus, 20, 22
Lorenz, Konrad, 75, 145
Lyell, Charles, 108, 110, 112, 115, 116
Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich, 2, 92

McAtee, W.L., 73n
Malthus, Thomas Robert, 59-60;
Essay on the Principle of Population, 30n-31n
Mammoth, and adaptation, 70, 115-116, 120-121
Man, from ape, 141-142;
as primitive creature, 148
Marx, Karl, 92, 93, 97-98
Matthews, William H., III:
Fossils, An Introduction to Prehistoric Life, l5
Mayr, Ernst, 6, 7, 119, 135n, 141n;

Animal Species and Evolution, 10-11;
opposition to typological thinking 22-23, 24-25;
on Darwin’s nominalism, 24-26;
and genetic homeostasis, 34-35;
on predictions and natural selection, 43, 103, 104-105;
on fitness, 64, 66;
on random mutations, 76, 78;
on extinction, 119;
criticism of Darwinism, 124-125, 147;
on evolutionary theory, 153-l62

Millenarianism, 129
Milton, John, l62
Mimicry, 70
Mollusks, 12
Moore, Ruth, 111, 113, 114, 116
Morphology, l0, 11
Morris, Desmond, 75n
Mortality, 4o
Mountains, 112-113
Muller, H. J., 6, 125;
One Hundred Years Without Darwin Are Enough, 129
Mutation, 41, 48, 121

Naked Ape, The (Morris), 75n
Narwhal, 121
Natural selection, 40-53, 97;

determination of intensity of, 44;
as mindless process, 99-100;
and perfection, 102-105;
defenders of, 134, 146

Nature, 136, 141
Neo-Darwinism, 5, 135, 137
Non-Darwinian selection, 41
Newell, Norman, 116
Newsweek, 116
Newton, Isaac, 129
Nominalists, 22, 23;
Darwin as, 24
Nordhagen, R., 113
North Pole, 114

Odyssey, 142
Offspring, see Progeny
Olson, Everett, 60
Olympus, 98
Opossum, 121, 140
Orders, 19
Organism and environment, 69
Origin of Species, The (Darwin), 1, 4, 24-25, 30, 33, 65n, 90, 102, 108, 135, 154;
embryology in, 11-12
Osborn, Henry F., 119

Paleontology, 3, 10, 14, 18
Paley, William, 87-90, 93-94, 132;
Natural Theology, 87
Patterson, B., 76
Pearson, Karl, 52-53
Petrunkevitch, Alexander, 161
Philosophy, 18
Phyla, 12;
definition of, I9
Phylogeny, 13, 21
Physiology, I10
Pigeons, 29, 33
Plants, 3, 19
Platypus, 121, 140
Pleistocene epoch, 120
Popper, Karl R., 92, 97-99, 103-105
Poles, magnetic, 113
Population, fiuctuation of, 41
Porpoises, 60
Prairie-dog kiss, 45, 145
Pre-Darwinian authors, 33
Probability, 87-95
Progenitor, 12
Progeny, 23;

differential reproduction, 47;
and fitness, 63-64

Pterodactyls, 11

Quadrupeds, 30

Realists, 22, 24-25
Religion, 18, 74, 76, 124-132, 138;
and Paey, 87-94
Rensch, Bernhard, 32n, 41;
Evolution Above the Species Level, 31-32
Reproduction,

vegetative, 23;
differential, 40, 46-48, 65

Reversion to the Average, law of, 36
Robb, R. C., 161
Romer, A. S., 125
Roux, Wilhelm, 57
Runcorn, S. K., 114

Sage grouse, 82-8 3
Scopes, John, 3n; trial of, 2-3, 124, 152
Sea slugs, 101
Sebright, John, 154
Selection, 30-31. See also Natural selection
Sewall Wright Effect, 136-137, 159, l60n
Sexual selection, 82-85, 134
Sharks, 14
Shaw, G. B., 57
Sheep, 25, 29
Siberia, 114, 115
Simpson, G. G., 5, 6, 23, 25, 33n-34n, 104, 125;

and biogenetic law, 13;
on primate classification, 20;
on the tempo of evolution, 37, 37n;
and natural selection, 40, 41, 42, 43-46, 48-49, 48n;
on the struggle for existence, 57-58, 60;
on fitness, 64-66;
on adaptation, 70, 76, 77;
on probabilitv, 91, 92, 95;
opposition to uniformitarianism, 115-116;
on extinction, 120-121

Skeleton, vertebrae, 11
Smith, John Maynard, 6, 12, 20-21, 62, 84, 91-92;
The Theory of Evolution, 1-2
Snails, 12
South Pole, 114
Specialization, 138-139, 140n, 141n, 148,
Species, problem and definition, 18-26
Spencer, Herbert, 62
Spiral cleavage, 12
Squirrels, 45, 145
Standen, Anthony: Science Is a Sacred Cow, 150
Statistics, discipline of, 19
Stebbins, G. Ledyard, Jr., 6, 21, 23-24, 4 I, 42-43, 46, 49, 129-130, 137
Sterility, 35
Struggle for existence, 2, 56-60, 134
Stufenreihe, 16n
Super-ego, 98
Survival of the fittest, 2, 62-66, 134;

and adaptation, 69;
and extinction, 118

Swallowtail butterfly, 70,
Symbiosis, 58
Synthetic theory, 6
Systematics, 10, 18

Taxonomists, 18-19, 21-22
Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre, 128
Territoriality, 83
Texas State Board of Education, 124
Tinbergen, N., 75, 145
Twain, Mark, 37-38
Type, archetype, 22-25
Typological thinking, 22-25

Uniformitarianism, 108, 115
United Press, 124
United States, 149
University of California, 59

Velikovsky, Immanuel, 110-112, 113-116;

Worlds in Collision, 110;
Earth in Upheaval, 111

Vertebrates, 148-149
Vitalism, 94, 146
Vitalists, 94

Waage, Karl M., 16, 16n
Waddington, C. H., 6, 47-48, 76, 120, 125, 137
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 33,
Zeiteist, 162, 102-104
Watchmaker, see Religion
Weismann, August, 56-57
Whale, 121
Williams, Charles: The Place of the Lion, 25n
Williams, George, 48n-49n
Willow tree, 22
Woodger, J. H., 125
World War II, 116
Wright, Sewall, 6, 51-52, 121-122, 136, 137, I53-162
Wyoming, 82

Yale, 59
Yale Peabody Museum, 16
Yale Review, 5
Ycas, Martynas, 75-76

Zeitgeist, 162
Zoology, 18

Return to Book Index


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