Table of Contents
A handbook for students, parents, and teachers countering the latest arguments for evolution
This book has addressed the main arguments for evolution presented by Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science and found them wanting. By contrast, the evidence for creation is cogent. In particular, Refuting Evolution has covered the following areas in its nine chapters:
Chapter 1: Facts do not speak for themselves, but must be interpreted according to a framework. The leading evolutionists are biased towards naturalism, to the extent that many are outspoken atheists. This is especially true of the National Academy of Science, the producers of Teaching about Evolution. Conversely, creationists admit that they are biased in favor of creation as revealed in the Bible. Although they have the same facts as evolutionists, interpreting them according to a biblical framework results in a more scientifically cogent theory.
Chapter 2: Adherents to both the biblical creation/corruption/flood framework and the particles-to-people evolution framework teach that organisms change through time, and that mutations and natural selection play a large part in this. But evolutionists assume that the changes eventually increase the information content, so that a single living cell (which they claim arose from non-living chemicals) was the ancestor of all other life. Creationists believe that separate kinds were created, and that changes generally either remove information or leave the total information content unchanged. The examples of ‘evolution in action’ presented by Teaching about Evolution do not demonstrate the information increase required by evolution. Rather, they are examples of variation within a kind, and are consistent with the creation framework.
Chapter 3: Evolutionists since Darwin have predicted that the fossil record would show many intermediate forms linking one kind of organism to a different kind. Instead, the fossil record shows that animals appear abruptly and fully formed, with only a handful of debatable examples of alleged transitional forms. It is also doubtful whether one can even imagine functional intermediates in many cases.
Chapter 4: Birds are unique creatures, with wings and feathers designed for flight, and special lungs completely different from those of any reptile. Some evolutionists propose that birds evolved from gliding tree reptiles, while others propose that birds evolved from running dinosaurs. Each group refutes the other so convincingly that a reasonable conclusion is that birds did not evolve from non-birds at all.
Chapter 5: Whales are mammals designed for life in water, with many unique features. Teaching about Evolution asserts that whales evolved from land animals, and presents an alleged series of whale intermediates. But on close analysis, none stands up. For example, we find that the fossil evidence for one alleged key intermediate, Ambulocetus, is fragmentary. Another alleged intermediate, Basilosaurus, is actually 10 times the size of Ambulocetus although the book draws them the same size. And an evolutionary vertebrate paleontologist points out its peculiar body and tooth shape mean that Basilosaurus ‘could not possibly have been the ancestor of modern whales.’
Chapter 6: Humans are very different from apes, especially in intelligence and language. Teaching about Evolution presents a series of alleged apeman skulls. But the evidence shows that humans and australopithecines are distinct kinds. This includes analysis of the semicircular canals in the ear and the canal that carried the nerve to the tongue. DNA similarities between humans and chimps are exaggerated; the dissimilarities correspond to encyclopedic differences in information. A common creator is a better explanation for both similarities and differences. Proper drawings of embryos show that different kinds have very different embryos, not similar ones, despite the claim of Teaching about Evolution.
Chapter 7: Teaching about Evolution presents the usual big bang theory. However, there is no satisfactory evolutionary explanation to explain how the universe could come into existence without a cause, or for the formation of stars and solar systems after such an alleged ‘big bang.’ Teaching about Evolution also discusses the Galileo controversy, but misses the point. The church had adopted the Ptolemaic framework and interpreted the Bible accordingly. Secular defenders of the framework persuaded the church leaders that Galileo was really contradicting the Bible. Moreover, the verses (mis)used to teach Ptolemaic astronomy were often from the Psalms, Hebrew poetry (unlike Genesis) that was clearly not intended to teach a particular cosmological model. Also, other biblical passages (mis)used were using the earth as a reference frame, a scientifically accurate procedure.
Chapter 8: Teaching about Evolution teaches that the earth is billions of years old, and uses the fossils and radiometric dating as ‘proof.’ However, there is evidence that many rocks and fossils were formed by catastrophic processes, which is consistent with the biblical framework that includes a global flood. Radiometric dating theory relies on several untestable assumptions about the past, and the methods have often proven false and even self-contradictory in practice. Ninety percent of the methods that have been used to estimate the age of the earth indicate an age far younger than that asserted by Teaching about Evolution.
Chapter 9: Living organisms have encyclopedic quantities of complex, specific information coded in the DNA. Interestingly, this is precisely the criterion that would prove that a signal from outer space has an intelligent source. DNA itself is the most efficient storage/retrieval system in the universe. The information it stores is the blueprint for all the enzymes required for life, and the recipe for building the complex organs needed. Some of these include sonars of dolphins and bats, and the miniature motors driving flagella or making the ATP molecule. These are far more complex than anything humans have built. Other structures have inspired human inventions; for example, the lobster eye inspired an x-ray telescope design. Finally, it is shown that the design explanation is legitimate, and that the only reason to reject it is an a priori faith in materialism.
(Available in Spanish)