Table
of Contents

Lesson 1
Planet Earth
Lesson 2
The Ground We Stand Upon
Lesson 3
The Earth’s Surface
Lesson 4
Erosion / Deposition
Lesson 5
Sediments / Fossilization
Lesson 6
Volcanism / Deformation of rocks / Continents
Lesson 7
Metamorphism / Radioisotope Decay
Lesson 8
Ways to date the Earth
Lesson 9
Great geologic events of the past
Lesson 10
Questions people ask

The Geology Book

The Geology Book
by Dr John D Morris

Lesson 2

The Ground We Stand Upon

Textbook:

The Geology Book

Text:

pp. 10-19

Scripture:

Genesis 1:1
Obadiah 1:3

Vocabulary Words:

  • Ryolite
  • Obsidian
  • Sedimentary rocks
  • Ripple marks
  • Crossbed
  • Concretions
  • Metamorphism

Questions:

  1. This chapter lists three categories of rock, with each category containing a discussion on several types of rock. Draw an expanded version of the table below.
    1. In the first column, list each type of rock mentioned in this chapter.
    2. In the second column, list the category under which the rock is found.
    3. In the third column, describe the composition of each rock type.
    4. In the fourth column, describe how the rock is formed.
    5. In the fifth column, make a list of where the rock is found today.

Watch out for types within types!
The first one has been filled in as a guideline.

Type Category Composition Formation Found
Granite Igneous Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende Formed when molten rock is cooled Mountains
Upper mantle
  1. Write a paragraph for each category of rock, describing how it forms, and where it is found.

Activity:

Start collecting stones/small rocks from around your area (or other areas to which you travel). Try to classify the type of rock you have found. Can you find samples of each rock you described in the above table?

Note: If you go to a National/State/local park, please ask permission to remove the stones/rocks you are collecting.

Additional resources:

Answers:

Type Category Composition Formation Found
Granite Igneous Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende Formed when molten rock is cooled Mountains
Upper mantle
Rhyolite Igneous Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende Formed when molten rock erupts on land and solidifies Land
Obsidian Igneous Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende Formed by the rapid cooling of lava as it flows in the surface of the ground Land
Pumice Igneous Quartz and feldspar with mica and hornblende Formed by eruptions on land—the cooling process forms air pockets in the rock Land
Basalt Igneous Pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar Solidified molten lava under water and on land Oceanic crust, land
Shale Clastic Sedimentary Cemented particles of clay (and minor silt) Formed from previously existing rocks that were eroded, transported and redeposited elsewhere Mountains, land
Sandstone Clastic Sedimentary Quartz sand, particles big enough to be seen Formed from previously existing rocks that were eroded, transported and redeposited elsewhere Mountains, land
Conglomerate Clastic Sedimentary Pebble-size to boulder-size grains mixed with smaller sand or clay particles Formed from previously existing rocks that were eroded, transported and redeposited elsewhere Mountains, land
Limestone Organic chemical sedimentary Calcium carbonate from shells of sea creatures, reef fragments or limey secretions of sea creatures Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved within it Sea floors, land
Diatomaceous earth Organic chemical sedimentary Collection of shells from diatoms or radiolarians and certain algae Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved within it Land
Coal Organic chemical sedimentary Buried plant material Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved in it Land
Limestone Inorganic chemical sedimentary Calcium carbonate derived from inorganic sources Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved in it Caves, mineral springs, stalactites, stalagmites
Dolomite Inorganic chemical sedimentary Calcium carbonate with magnesium atoms Formed when water can no longer keep various chemicals dissolved in it Land
Evaporites Inorganic chemical sedimentary The remains of evaporated seawater Some were formed when a huge volume of mineral-laden water came up through the ocean floor basalts and released its dissolved content when it hit the cold ocean waters Land
Slate Metamorphic Shale Shale subjected to heat and pressure Land
Schist Metamorphic Shale Slate that continues to undergo heat and pressure Land
Gneiss Metamorphic Alternating bands of different minerals from other sedimentary or igneous rocks Formed from other sedimentary or igneous rocks that have been subjected to heat and pressure Land
Quartzite Metamorphic Quartz sandstone Quartz sandstone that has been subjected to change Land
Marble Metamorphic Limestone Heat and pressure applied to limestone Land

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