Lessons & Chapters
Lessons 13 & 14 How did all the animals fit on Noah’s Ark?and How did freshwater and saltwater fish survive the Flood? (Chapters 13 & 14)
The Creation Answers Book Study Guide
Lesson 5: How can we see distant stars in a young universe?
Text: The Creation Answers Book, chapter 5
Section: The big bang light travel problem
What is the horizon problem?
Discuss some of the ways that ‘big bang’ astronomers have sought to solve this problem.
How does this problem place the ‘big bang’ on the same footing as biblical cosmology?
Section: Created light?
- Discuss the implications of the idea that God created light ‘on its way’ on the fourth day of creation. List the pros and cons of this idea.
Section: Did light always travel at the same speed?
What are some bad arguments used against the c decay theory?
What are some good arguments used against the c decay theory?
Section: New creationist cosmologies
What crucial idea may provide a clue to explaining distant starlight from a biblical perspective?
Discuss the scientific and theological problems associated with the ‘big bang’. (See also Q&A: Astronomy and Astrophysics for information.)
How do we know the given distances to the stars are real?
Section: New approaches: Dr Russ Humphreys
What are some of the weaknesses in Dr Humphreys’ original white hole cosmology?
Explain how Dr Humphreys’ new model draws on Scripture to provide a framework.
What other assumptions does Dr Humphreys make?
Dr Humphreys’ new model describes the earth as being plunged into a zone of ‘timelessness’. What are the physical effects of this on earth? What are the physical effects of this outside the timeless zone?
What would an observer on Earth see as the result of Dr Humphreys’ model?
How has Dr Humphreys’ model been applied to scientific anomalies such as the ‘Pioneer anomaly’?
Section: New approaches: Dr John Hartnett
Describe the concept of ‘cosmological relativity’.
What are some of the strengths of the cosmological relativity concept?
What assumptions does Dr Hartnett use in his cosmology?
How does his cosmology differ from Dr Humphreys cosmology?
Summarize Dr Hartnett’s model of cosmology. One possible answer follows:
Dr John Hartnett uses the concepts of a cosmic centre of mass, expansion of space, and recent time dilation and incorporates cosmological relativity. Cosmological relativity is derived from the development of special relativity theory (the effect of motion on time) for the large scale structure of the universe. The model involves the usual four dimensions (three of space, plus time) but adds a new fifth dimension, the velocity of the expansion of the cosmos, which is like the effect that velocity has on time in special relativity. When applied to a universe with a centre of mass it explains a lot of what we see. Time dilation also results, but not due to a net gravitational effect in a finite bounded universe—it is due to the enormous stretching of the fabric of space. At Creation, God caused space to rapidly expand such that clocks on Earth at the centre of the expansion ran very slowly compared to clocks in galaxies in the expanding cosmos.
What are some of the problems that Dr Hartnett’s cosmology solves?
Further discussion questions
In general, what is a ‘model’? Read ‘Hanging Loose’: What should we defend? What should our attitude be toward Scripture, and toward models based on Scripture?
Although ‘distant starlight’ seems a problem for the Biblical young-universe teaching, there are many other astronomical evidences that point toward a young universe. Write a paper presenting various evidences for a young universe. (See also Q&A: ‘Young’ age of the Earth and Universe—Astronomy).