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Refuting Evolution -- study guide: Lesson 2

Refuting Evolution
by Dr Jonathan Sarfati


Study Guide

Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Lesson 3

Lesson 4

Lesson 5

Lesson 6

Lesson 7

Lesson 8

Lesson 9

Teacher‘s Guide

Student Worksheet

Table of Contents

Book Index

Foreword & Introduction

Chapter 1
Facts & Bias

Chapter 2
Variation and Natural Selection Versus Evolution

Chapter 3
The Links Are Missing

Chapter 4
Bird Evolution?

Chapter 5
Whale Evolution?

Chapter 6
Humans: Images of God or Advanced Apes?

Chapter 7

Chapter 8
How Old Is the Earth?

Chapter 9
Is the Design Explanation Legitimate?

Chapter 10

Lesson 2

Chapter 2: Variation and Natural Selection Versus Evolution

Supplemental materials:

Discussion questions:

  1. Briefly outline and critique the ‘general theory of evolution’ (in the molecules-to-man sense). Discuss the role of ‘natural selection’ and ‘mutations’ within this model. Include in your response how genetic information originated and increases.
  2. Explain the ‘creation model’based on the Biblical view of history. Discuss the role of ‘natural selection’ and ‘mutations’ within this model. Include in your response how genetic information originated and decreases.
  3. How much genetic diversity is inherent in a single individual?
  4. Research and write a paper about the life of Edward Blyth.
  5. Define:
    1. genetic drift
    2. dominant
    3. recessive
    4. allele
    5. heterozygous
    6. founder effect
  6. What processes result in a net loss of genetic information within a population?
  7. What types of scenarios might result in the formation of a new species?
  8. How would you answer someone who claimed that resistance to antibiotics or pesticides is proof of ‘evolution’?
  9. How would you answer someone who claimed that the formation of a new species is proof of ‘evolution’?
  10. Analyze the idea that each of today’s species was independently created in its present location.


  1. Basically, evolution requires that non-living chemicals organize themselves into a self-reproducing organism, which would then change into more complex creatures over time. Via natural selection and mutation, new organisms arise and genetic information increases. However, there is no known process by which information has been observed to arise by chance. See pages 31-32.
  2. God created all animals to reproduce according to their own ‘kinds’. He gave each creature enough genetic variability to bring about the various species that we have today. Natural selection operates on the existing information in a population, while mutations also affect the already-present information. See Q&A: Natural Selection for additional information and pages 32-39.
  3. See page 33—one person could produce 102017 sperm or egg cells.
  4. Formulate your own response.
  5. See text for definitions.
  6. Natural selection and mutations.
  7. See pages 36-37, e.g., groups within a population became isolated from the rest of the group.
  8. See Q&A: Mutations for additional information. For true evolution to occur, new information has to be added to the genome. Resistance to antibiotics has nothing to do with adding new genetic information. There are several ways that bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. One way is that some bacteria already had the genes for resistance to the antibiotics. In fact, some bacteria, obtained by thawing sources that had been frozen before man developed antibiotics, have been shown to be antibiotic-resistant. When antibiotics are applied to a population of bacteria, those lacking resistance are killed, and any genetic information hey carry is eliminated. The survivors carry less information, but they are all resistant. The same principle applies to insects 'evolving' resistance to insecticides. The resistance was already there, and the insects without resistance are eliminated.
  9. Evolution in the molecules-to-man sense requires a net increase in genetic information. An overall loss of information is generally involved in the formation of a new species. See Q&A: Speciation for additional information.
  10. God created all ‘kinds’ in the beginning. After the Flood, the various kinds began to fill the earth and adapt to their environments.