Noah’s Ark and salvation
Another reason the Flood could not have been local
About 1,656 years after the creation of the world, God destroyed all humans, except for eight1 on the Ark that Noah built, and all air-breathing land animals (except those on the Ark) in a great global judgment. Many marine creatures were also destroyed—some 95% of all fossils found are the remains or impressions of creatures that once lived in the sea. We see evidence of this deluge all over the earth, including on the highest mountains. Mt Everest has marine fossils at its peak.
Scripture tells us,
“… when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, an ark having been prepared, into which a few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water. Which antitype now also saves us, baptism (not a putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God through the resurrection of Jesus Christ … .)” (1 Peter 3:20–212).
The Apostle Peter describes our being baptized into Christ’s death as an antitype of the saving of eight in the Ark. The original Greek word ἀντίτυπος (antitypos) has the meaning of a ‘representative’ or a ‘figure’. The dictionary definition of the English word ‘antitype’ is ‘something that is represented by a symbol’. It comes from ‘anti’ meaning ‘opposite’, as well as ‘in place of’, and ‘typos’ an impression like from a die or stamp. So an opposite to the die is a representation or symbol of the original. In short, the Bible makes it clear that the Ark, which saved eight souls through the deluge, is a figure, or ‘type’, of Christ and His salvation. Through entering the Ark, all who responded to Noah’s preaching could be saved from the waters of judgment. Even so, by entering into Christ, the ultimate Ark of salvation, we are saved from the judgment to come.
Millions of years’—the inspiration for global Flood denial
For those trying to ‘harmonize’ the Bible with the popular belief in millions of years, Noah’s Flood is a stumbling block. This is because ‘millions of years’ is inextricably tied up with the belief that the fossil record is millions of years old. It could thus not have been laid down by the world-wide, year-long Genesis Flood. And such a global flood would in any case erase any geologic evidence of any sort of ‘pre-history’. Thus old-earth sympathizers are highly motivated to insist that the Flood was local—despite the overwhelming evidence of the text itself.
Now there are those who, motivated by the desire to add millions of years to the Bible, (see below) claim the Flood was only a local event. One could point to much physical evidence that it was global: sedimentary (water-laid) layers all over the earth; the fact that those sediments contain the buried remains of billions of creatures; and the evidence that they were buried rapidly, not slowly and gradually over hundreds of thousands or millions of years.
One could point to the scriptural texts themselves, which are overwhelming in their universality of description. If the writer had intended to describe a global Flood, what other language could he possibly have used?
Also, the Bible states that God sent to board the Ark two of every landdwelling creature with the breath of life in it. Why would He do that if they could simply have migrated out of the area? Why build the Ark so big? Why take them at all, with all the associated problems of feeding them for a year, if the Flood were localized?3
Also, if the Flood were other than global, why take birds on board? Most birds could have quickly flown away to mountains out of range of even the biggest local flood. Today many birds migrate over vast distances, often nonstop. A local flood makes the whole account bizarre, even absurd.
Scripture also states that the floodwaters covered the highest mountains (Genesis 7:20). So how could these waters cover the highest mountains in a local area and not be global? They couldn’t—it is physically impossible. Water seeks its own level. It couldn’t rise to cover the local mountains while leaving the rest of the world untouched. It means the Flood must have been global.4
The point is the Flood was global. The Ark saved the souls God chose—those eight—from all the people of the earth. For about 70 years, Noah and the Ark being built would have been a salvation witness to all, to repent of their sins and join Noah’s family on the Ark.5
Therefore by analogy, Christ is an antitype of the Ark, saving the souls of those who repent today. If the Flood was only local, there was no need for the Ark. Similarly, you don’t need Christ if the effects of sin are only local, not global. The Ark-Christ analogy breaks down for a local flood because the true Ark—the Lord Jesus Christ—did not come to make salvation available to just a few in Israel but to the whole world (1 Timothy 2:4, Acts 17:30).6
If people in some areas of the planet or at some time in history were not sinners, then they wouldn’t need to be saved. But Christ came to die for the sins of whosoever (in the whole world) would call on Him for salvation. Romans 10:13 says, quoting Joel 2:32, that “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved”. The effects of sin were on all people (Romans 3:23), because all have descended from “the first man, Adam” (1 Corinthians 15:45). Christ, “the last Adam”, came to redeem all those who trust in Him in the midst of a global flood of sin.
So what about the naive apologetics of old-earth proponents leading many astray today?7 The Bible is very clear in 1 Peter 3:20–21. We don’t preach a localized Christ. Just as the Flood represented the judgment of God on the whole world, so salvation is now for all those everywhere who repent.
Mountains and the Flood
There is enough water in the oceans today so that, if all the surface features of the earth were evened out, water would cover the globe to a depth of 2.7 km (1.7 miles). This is not enough to cover mountains the height of Everest, but it shows that the pre-Flood mountains could have been well over a mile (1.6 km) high and still could have been covered. Today’s mountains (including the Himalayas) have blankets of sedimentary rock draped over them. Since sediments are usually laid horizontally, this shows they were thrust up through the overlying sediments after the Flood. Whether or not Psalm 104:8 is only about creation, or refers to this uplift in an apparent link to God’s rainbow promise never to flood the world again, is a point of debate. However, some such post-Flood uplift of land masses, with the Flood waters draining into today’s oceans, has clearly occurred.
References and notes
- Noah, his wife, his three sons and their wives. All humans descended from these 8 people post-Flood. Return to text.
- Careful consideration of the typology here shows that Peter is not teaching the errant view that one must be baptized to be saved spiritually, as opposed to the biblical view that baptism is what saved people should do (see Sarfati, J. Is baptism necessary for salvation? creation.com/baptism, 14 February 2009). Return to text.
- Hodge, B., and Sarfati, J, Yes, Noah did build an Ark!, creation.com/bbc-noah. Return to text.
- Noah’s Flood covered the whole earth, creation.com/globalflood. Return to text.
- The notion, propagated by astronomer Hugh Ross, that all people of the world at that time just happened to live in a local area of the Middle East is totally implausable. Return to text.
- The idea that some promote in order to ‘harmonize’ Genesis with geology’s millions of years, that the Flood was not global physically but destroyed all humanity outside the Ark, breaks down by requiring an anthropological absurdity. i.e. after 1,700 years of human history, they allege, no one ever lived outside of a small area of the Middle East. Return to text.
- Faulkner, D., The dubious apologetics of Hugh Ross, creation.com/ross_apol. Return to text.
Great article and good job on your part by not taking the bait on the eschatological comment from Les H. (the 'disputed territory' lure).
I have never really liked using the terms "Type" and "Anti-Type," because I find them to be unfamiliar to most people. A simpler and more familiar term that I find helpful is the word “model.” For example, when people build a rocket or an airplane, usually they first build a model before they build the final production. The Anti-Type is the “model” which helps us to better understand the finished work. The Passover Lamb is the “model” which helps us to better understand Jesus as “The Lamb of God.” Or the bronze snake on the pole as a "model" of what Jesus accomplishes on the cross, and Jonah in the belly of the great fish for 3 days and nights "models" Jesus dead and buried before His resurrection, etc. (there are so many "models" of Christ in the Old Testament!) Without the Old Testament “models” it would be much harder for us to understand the New Testament fulfillments. It is not that God needed to make the models for Himself; the models are given for us. This teaching helped me to understand the “Type” and “Anti-Types” concept a little better. I hope it will help others as well.
The book of Genesis tells us that eight people survived the Flood. However, there are several flood legends from other non-biblical sources, so who wrote these accounts, or were they referring to pre Flood floods?
Those flood legends all stem from the biblical Flood. The truth was distorted with time and retelling as it was passed through subsequent generations and to different tribal groups. But all those stories had their foundation in the true account recorded in the biblical text. Read Flood!
Creation day two reminds us that when God created the sky, he separated the water beneath the firmament from the water above it. I take this as a literal confirmation that before the Flood there was water above the earth's atmosphere. Therefore when it rained for 40 days and nights, this would explain where all the water came from (obviously many others have pointed this out before). I'm not a geologists but this excess water would have exerted forces and pressures against the land on a planet-wide scale leading to massive erosion, carving out of canyons and eventually leading to deeper oceans than what existed pre-flood.
Dr Tas Walker summarises where all the Flood water most probably came from. Read Where did all the water come from?
Just a little point.
I may be misreading your second last paragraph "a global flood of sin." which seems to contradict the previous teaching: "the waters of judgment". It may be that you use an extra analogy where it actually introduces confusion with the truth previously given of the type.
Death is God's inexorable judgment on sinners. The flood was a tremendous demonstration of that; and of salvation only through the substitutionary death of our Lord Jesus Christ. The flood-water was God's judgment penalty of death on those who would not seek shelter in His ark - my offered correction is that the water was "death" (as baptism clearly signifies) - the water does not represent sins; the water of the flood represents judgement on sin.
You may not wish to go further with the type, entering disputed territory! However it has been suggested that Enoch's rapture typifies the church (God's heavenly people) raptured away before the judgment falls on the earth, and the ark typifies Israel (God's earthly people) carried safely through the judgment which fall on the earth. All, of course, in virtue of the death of Christ.
PS I am thankful for your work. I am enjoying "...Achilles' Heel" at the moment.
I have no problem with your point. The main point of my analogy was more on the global (emphasis on global) nature of sin and hence the need for a global judgment. This is in contrast to the local flood doctrine which would have to correspond to a localisation of sin and of judgment. But quite clearly the latter is wrong.
On your disputed territory, I don't personally subscribe to Darby's dispensationalism, but that is outside the mandate of CMI's ministry. Hence no further comment here.
Glad you like Evolution's Achilles' Heels.