When Christians try to reconcile the Bible with evolution and its billions of years
of deep time, they usually propose something along the following lines: A population
of creatures called “hominids” came into existence by means of evolution.
In their final form, these creatures were identical to humans, except that they
did not have spirits. But then God implanted spirits—either into just two
of them (Adam and Eve), or into many—and we are the descendents of those “upgraded
This bizarre scenario contradicts the clear teaching of Scripture1 and the real facts of science.2 In this article, however, I will confine myself
to pointing out just two flaws in the theory.
First, the abilities and faculties of the human body and mind are vastly superior
to those needed for survival and reproduction. For that reason (as well as many
other reasons) their existence cannot be accounted for by evolution.3
Second, the abilities and faculties of the human body and mind are so clearly designed
for a spiritual purpose, that their supposed existence without the spirit (for hundreds
of thousands of years in various hominids) makes very little sense.
Here are some of the special abilities and faculties of the human body and mind:
Upright posture. Unlike the apes, and all other mammals, man has
a fully upright posture.4
This is completely unnecessary for survival and reproduction; but it is, I suggest,
very appropriate for a being who was “made in the image of God”, and
was given dominion over the whole world.
First, it allows him to make full use of his hands in very special ways (see below).
And second, it confers on him a special kind of dignity.
‘The human hand is one of the most precise and wonderful mechanical devices
in creation and vastly more impressive than any mechanical device that man has made.’—Stuart
Burgess, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Bristol University.
The hands. The human hand is unique in creation. Prof. Stuart Burgess
writes, “The human hand is one of the most precise and wonderful mechanical devices
in creation and vastly more impressive than any mechanical device that man has made”.5
About a quarter of the entire motor cortex in the human brain is devoted to controlling
the muscles of the hand. (The motor cortex is the part of the brain responsible
for the movement of voluntary muscles.)
Human hands can, for example, build telescopes and microscopes to explore God’s
creation, and they can construct and play musical instruments—producing the
most beautiful music, and playing with incredible dexterity and virtuosity.
The abilities of the human hand seem to be vastly greater than those needed for
survival and reproduction;6
but they are entirely appropriate for a being who is “made in the image of
The face. Humans have an amazing and unique ability to make many
types of intricate facial expression. There are about 40 named muscles in the human
face and they can move every part of the face with precision. No other creature can
do this, and it is completely unnecessary for survival and reproduction. But again,
it is highly appropriate for a being of man’s mental and spiritual status.
Another special feature of the human face is the fact that the whites of the eyes
are visible. This feature greatly enhances the ability of humans to produce different
kinds of facial expression, and to interact emotionally with other humans.
Language. Human speech is unique and enormously complex.7 The language of a hunter-gatherer
living in the jungle is just as complex as yours and mine—often more so. It
depends on unique features of the human body’s anatomy and the human brain.
Again, this faculty is unnecessary for survival and reproduction (animals manage
perfectly well without it), but it is highly appropriate for a being of man’s
mental and spiritual status.
The brain. It is said that the human brain is the most complex
structure in the universe, but that is an understatement! It is stupendous and mind-boggling
in its complexity.8 On a
purely physical level, it contains about 100 billion neurons (brain cells, each
of which is stupendously and mind-bogglingly complex), with about 100 trillion connections.
We have only the vaguest notions as to how it works. We are in the territory of
both the body and the mind here. Again, the abilities and faculties of man’s
brain are way beyond anything required for survival and reproduction, but they are
entirely appropriate for someone who is “made in the image of God”.
The abilities and faculties of man’s brain are way beyond anything required
for survival and reproduction, but they are entirely appropriate for someone who
is ‘made in the image of God’
I believe that the human soul (which I am calling “the mind” in this
article) is the seat of reason, will and emotion. These faculties are vastly superior
to anything found in animals. They (the human faculties) are not at all necessary
for survival and reproduction—which is one of many reasons why they cannot
be accounted for by evolution—but as far as man’s spiritual status is
concerned, they are a vital part of his makeup.
Reason. Man is a rational being who can deal with abstract ideas
and concepts. He can explore and understand the physical universe because he is
a rational being, and the universe was created by a rational God. In fact, modern
science began and flourished in Europe because Christians believed this.9 The ability to speak, and to express abstract thoughts
and ideas, is unique to the human race, and is part of his rational nature.
Man’s faculty of reason is far above anything possessed by the animals, which
operate mainly by instinct. (Some animals do seem to have a very limited capacity
for reason.) This is one reason why man was given dominion over all other creatures.
The fact that man is a rational being is part of what it means to be “made
in the image of God” (Genesis 1:27).
Will. The human will, with its ability to choose between right
and wrong, is again far above anything possessed by animals. This also reflects
the nature of God, and is part of what it means to be “made in the image of
Emotion. Human beings experience a tremendous range of emotions,
way beyond anything experienced by animals. The appreciation of beauty (including
music) is one such emotion, apparently unique to the human race. This faculty also
reflects the nature of God, and is part of what it means to be “made in the
image of God”.
All these faculties of the human mind reflect the nature of God. However, God is
spirit (John 4:24), and without a spirit, man would not be able
to have a real relationship with God and be fully “made in the image of God”.
The idea that there was a time when man’s ancestors possessed these unique
faculties of the mind, but did not have a spirit, makes very little sense.
Neandertals had the faculty of speech, buried their dead ritualistically, played
music, were artistic, made tools, and used fire. In other words, they were fully
Some theistic evolutionists may counter this by claiming that spiritless hominids
did not possess human reason, will and emotion—because these are faculties
of the spirit, not the mind. If that were true, it would mean that for millions
of years, hominids developed abilities and faculties of the body (including
the brain) which were appropriate for highly intelligent, spiritual beings, and
totally inappropriate for brute beasts. And yet their minds remained those
of brute beasts! This also makes very little sense, and is equally unscriptural,
if not more so.
In fact, there is clear evidence that at least some so-called “hominids”
did have the faculties of human reason, will and emotion. There is also evidence
(in the form of ritual burials) of belief in an afterlife—which is evidence
of spirituality. For example, there is evidence that the Neandertals had the faculty
of speech, buried their dead ritualistically, played music, were artistic, made
tools, and used fire.10
In other words, they were fully human. The fact is, there never were any hominids,
in the sense of non-human “ape-men” ancestral to humans. This conclusion is supported
by the fossil evidence when it is studied in an open-minded way, without preconceived
See, for example, Sanford, J., Genetic Entropy & The Mystery of the Genome, FMS Publications,
New York, 2008. John Sanford was a Professor of Genetics at Cornell University,
and in this devastating book he reveals the absolute impossibility of macro-evolution.
The human genome is steadily deteriorating, not improving.
Return to text.
Burgess, S., The origin of man, One Day Publications,
Leominster, England, p. 38, 2004. Stuart Burgess is Professor of Mechanical Engineering
at Bristol University, specializing in “Design and Nature”. See
interview, pp. 35–37 this issue. Return to text.
Of course dexterity could help survival in the making of tools,
spears, etc. However, the degree of dexterity seems far in excess of that
needed for such survival skills. Return to text.
See Williams, A., The biblical origins of
science—A review of For The Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations,
Science, Witch-hunts and the End of Slavery by Rodney Stark, Journal of Creation18(2):49–52, 2004; creation.com/stark. Return
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