Philip Bell B.Sc. (Hons.), PGCE, MRSB
Creationist Zoologist, ex-Cancer Researcher and Teacher,
CEO, Creation Ministries International (UK/Europe)
Philip has a passion to demolish secular and anti-God philosophies through sound biblical exposition and Christian apologetics—drawing from his experience in science, research, education and Christian ministry.
He trusted in Christ as a child and was raised in a strong Christian home to believe the Bible was the inerrant Word of God. However, during his late teens, he compromised with secular, evolutionary ideas about origins. During the course of his later, graduate studies he rejected evolution/millions of years on both scientific and biblical grounds. He came again to see that the Bible is God’s completely trustworthy, infallible Word on scientific and historical matters—as well as on vital matters of Christian faith and conduct.
Education and Professional background:
Philip studied biology and geology at the University of Wales (Swansea) and obtained a BSc (Hons) degree in zoology. Then he spent nine years in cancer research and became an active member of the Postgraduate School of Medicine at Bath University, England. Following this, he obtained a postgraduate teaching qualification (PGCE) from Exeter University and taught school science (and some religious studies) to 11–18 year olds. He continued to publish occasional cancer research papers (in secular medical journals) until 2004 and is a contributor to Creation magazine, Journal of Creation, CMI’s website and other periodicals.
Christian ministry activities:
Since 2001, Philip has travelled throughout the UK, Europe and beyond, teaching and lecturing on Bible/science topics in churches, schools and universities. Up until June 2006, Philip worked for Answers in Genesis in the UK as a speaker/writer and later as Deputy Chief Executive.
Currently, he heads up the UK/Europe branch of Creation Ministries International (see creation.com). He is author of Evolution and the Christian Faith: Theistic evolution in the light of Scripture and the contributing editor to Does Evolution Explain Everything About Life? and author of the children’s book Discovering the Truth about Dinosaurs.
Philip is married with five adult children and is a strong advocate of Christian education.
- B.Sc. (Hons.) in Zoology, 1989, University of Wales (Swansea). Subsidiaries in geology and botany.
- P.G.C.E, University of Exeter. Postgraduate Certificate of Education (= Diploma in Education), 1999. Subsidiary course: TEFL (Teaching English as a foreign language).
- M.R.S.B. Elected member of Institute of Biology, 1995 (became Royal Society of Biology in July 2015); also a Chartered Biologist until 2019.
- Member of the School of Postgraduate Medicine, University of Bath, 1995–1998.
January 2007–present—CEO, Creation Ministries International (UK/Europe).
October 2006–October 2007—Part-time church worker; regular pastoral and preaching duties in his local church.
2001–2006—Speaker and writer, later Deputy Chief Executive for Answers in Genesis UK/Europe, Leicester, UK.
1999–2001—Full time teacher of science (principally biology) in state secondary schools.
1989–1998—Clinical scientist involved in cancer, leukaemia and lymphoma research.
This included cell culture techniques, new drug screening, routine light microscopy, investigating cytotoxic drug resistance and cellular apoptosis. Some highlights follow (superscripted reference numbers refer to the following list of ‘Technical articles in secular/medical journals):
1990–1994—A particular focus on the R&D of new in vitro assay techniques. Philip co-developed a novel in vitro technology (patented and commercially produced) to aid in micro-cell culture and cytology (OCTOSPOT). It was funded by S.M.A.R.T. Awards (1992, 1993) from the UK Government’s Department of Trade and Industry.15,16
1994–1996—Among other things, he focused on the lab-testing of cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), plus comparing laboratory drug resistance findings with clinical drug resistance. Two co-authored papers1,2 supported one arm of a major Medical Research Council, phase 2 clinical trial of CLL. One of them was huge study, published in the leading haematological journal Blood (American Society of Hematology) which found that the lab test could accurately predict for extreme multi-drug resistance in leukaemia patients.
During the same period, the potential of a promising new drug (8-Cl-cAMP) was tested in a wide range of diseases and the resulting paper is still cited today.4 The active metabolite of this drug is called 8-Cl-adenosine and, the paper advised that it showed promise for treating acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML), especially in patients who, having already received chemotherapy, were liable to be drug-resistant. A phase II trial was suggested. Very few AML patients are cured with existing chemotherapy so it is encouraging that this prediction has been completely confirmed by fruitful research, most recently by a consortium of ten cancer research centres in a 2019 paper (see doi: 10.1002/jcp.28294). As a result, phase I and II clinical trials of the drug have begun in patients with drug-resistant AML.
1996–1997—Philip designed and conducted a project on drug-resistance in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; this was intended as work towards a PhD (while continuing in full-time employment) but it terminated prematurely when the funding was curtailed. From the first year of that PhD research he published two papers.5,6 One of these concerned an important protein receptor on B-lympocytes5 and the research findings are explained in layman’s terms below:
Mantle cell lymphoma vs chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
Most of the western world’s hospital haematology departments are equipped to carry out flow cytometry testing and they are likely to have a subscription to the journal, Communications in Clinical Cytometry, in which the research was published.5 Many types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) have a ‘leukemic phase’—so-called because the neoplastic (malignant) lymphocytes ‘spill over’ from the lymphatics into the circulating peripheral blood. The paper reports the discovery that a clinical diagnostic marker could completely distinguish between a type of NHL called mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in leukemic phase from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
The prognosis of both diseases is very different (explained below) but both are peculiar in that their neoplastic B-lymphocytes (the ‘bad’ cells) express a protein called CD5 that is absent in all other types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and leukaemia. The prognosis (likely outcome or forecast) of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is quite poor: a median survival for an individual patient of 2–5 years, with most treatments failing in less than 18 months—and sadly, this situation has not improved since the late 1990s. However, patients with CLL usually fare much better: depending on the stage (severity) of their disease, many CLL patients may live for over 10 years—and although CLL is not usually curable, its generally slower advance means that clinicians can keep it under control for many years.
The subject of the research paper was a serendipitous discovery which Philip made while investigating something else, namely the influence of interleukin-2 (a cytokine) on a protein-marker called Fas (CD95), found on both MCL and CLL cells. (That research was published in Anticancer Research the same year6). In order to perform such cytokine studies, first one must accurately distinguish the various classes of cells under investigation. This is done by analysing the pattern of proteins which they express: the cells are tagged by incubating them with antibodies, then the cells are physically sorted and segregated by laser (which is where the technique of flow cytometry comes in).
Philip had chosen a particular monoclonal antibody (anti-CD79a) to label the Igα protein on B-lymphoctes, a protein considered to be universally expressed by B-cells. As standard practice, he used anti-CD23 to distinguish MCL cells (which express CD23) from CLL cells (which don’t)—only to find that CD23 was not all that clear as a diagnostic marker for MCL versus CLL after all. Nevertheless (here is the serendipity), he discovered that the anti-CD79a monoclonal antibody distinguished definitively between MCL cells (strongly positive) and CLL cells (negative) in all patient blood samples. Diagnosing between CLL and MCL is very important, so this extra clinical diagnostic test is potentially very useful. The paper that came out of this serendipitous finding is still cited by researchers and pharmaceutical companies today.
After 1998—Philip’s long-standing interest in simultaneously testing the chemosensitivity of a patient’s malignant cells and their normal cells led to two co-authored papers in 2002 and 2004, when he was employed full-time with CMI.7,8 The latter concerned what he and his co-author termed ‘ex vivo therapeutic index’ and both papers have been cited as recently as 2020. In many types of cancer and leukaemia (and with a wide range of drugs), the lab test frequently predicted greater drug potency against the patient’s cancer cells, that is, a good ex vivo therapeutic index. If that translates to the treatment of actual patients (i.e. in vivo), the test is confirmed as a good predictor of reduced toxicity and morbidity in the clinic too.
Technical articles in secular medical/science journals
Bosanquet AG & Bell PB. Handling requirements to achieve active drugs in in vitro drug sensitivity and resistance assays. In: Kaspers GJL, Pieters R, Twentyman PR, Weisenthal LM, Veerman AJP (Eds) “ Drug resistance in leukemia and lymphoma. The clinical value of laboratory studies.” London: Harwood 1993; 227–255.
- Bosanquet AG & Bell PB. Enhanced ex vivo drug sensitivity testing of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia using refined DiSC assay methodology. Leukemia Research 1996; 20: 143–153.
- Bosanquet AG & Bell PB. Novel ex vivo analysis of nonclassical, pleiotropic drug resistance and collateral sensitivity induced by therapy provides a rationale for treatment strategies in CLL. Blood 1996; 87: 1962–1971.
- Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Burlton AR, Amos AS. Correlation of bcl-2 with P-glycoprotein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and other haematological neoplasms but of neither marker with ex vivo chemosensitivity or patient survival. Leukemia and Lymphoma 1996; 24: 141–147.
- Bosanquet AG, Burlton AR, Bell PB, Harris AL. Ex vivo cytotoxic drug evaluation by DiSC assay to expedite identification of clinical targets: results with 8-chloro-cAMP. British Journal of Cancer 1997; 76: 511–518.
- Bell PB, Rooney N, Bosanquet AG. CD79a detected by ZL7.4 separating chronic lymphocytic leukemia from mantle cell lymphoma in leukemic phase. Communications in Clinical Cytometry 1999; 38: 102–105.
- Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Rooney N. Effect of interleukin-2 on CD95 (Fas/APO-1) expression in fresh chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and mantle cell lymphoma cells: relationship to ex vivo chemoresponse. Anticancer Research 1999; 19: 5329–5334.
- Bosanquet AG, Burlton AR, Bell PB. Parameters affecting the ex vivo cytotoxic drug sensitivity of normal human cells. Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology 2002; 2: 53–63.
- Bosanquet AG & Bell PB. Ex vivo therapeutic index by drug sensitivity assay using fresh human normal and tumour cells: a potential surrogate for patient toxicity and sensitivity. Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology 2004; 4: 145–154.
- Bosanquet AG, Boullier BA, Bell PB, Taylor AR, Betteridge RF. Recent developments in the treatment of leukaemias using the Differential Staining Cytoxicity (DiSC) assay. British Journal of Cancer 1991; 63 (Suppl XIII): 31.
- Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Taylor AR, Chadwick J, Phillips MJ, Johnson SAN. Correlation of clinical response to fludarabine with DiSC assay result. British Journal of Cancer 1991; 64 (Suppl XV): 28.
- Bosanquet AG, Taylor AR, Bell PB. Lack of cross resistance between aclarubicin and other anthracyclines: should choice of anthracyclines be made by DiSC assay? British Journal of Cancer 1992; 65 (Suppl XVI): 29.
- Bosanquet AG & Bell PB. Variable in vitro therapeutic index found by DiSC assay with fresh human tumour cells. Br J Cancer 1992; 66 (Suppl XVII): 19.
- Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Taylor AR. In vitro DiSC assay results on fresh human cells suggest a trial of amsacrine in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Annals of Oncology 1992; 66 (Suppl XVII): 19.
- Bosanquet AG, Burlton AR, Bell PB, Talbot D, Harris AL. The in vitro drug sensitivity of 8-chloro-cAMP in leukemia and lymphoma. Br J Cancer 1994; 69: 1187.
- Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Burlton AR, Harris AL, Talbot D. New drug screening by DiSC assay. Technical improvements and results with vinorelbine and 8-chloro-cAMP. Annals of Oncology 1994; 5 (Suppl 5): 78.
- Bosanquet AG & Bell PB. New methodology improves the DiSC, MTT and FMC in vitro drug sensitivity assays for determining an individual patient’s drug sensitivity profile. Rev. Invest. Clin. 1994; 272. [see also: Proc. Internat. Soc. Hematol., 1994]
- Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Burlton AR. In vitro therapeutic index of fresh human tumor and normal cells identified by Differential Staining Cytotoxicity (DiSC) assay. Implications for Phase II/III trials. Proceedings of American Association for Cancer Research 1994; 35:368.
- Bosanquet AG, Mason JM, Drummond MF, Whiteley G, Bell PB, Burlton AR. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of DiSC assay directed therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. British Journal of Haematology 1994; 186 (Suppl 1): 75.
- Bosanquet AG, Amos AS, Bell PB, Burlton AR, Greaves MF. Comparison of BCL-2 and MDR-1 levels in in vitro drug sensitivies by DiSC assay in B-cell and other malignancies. Br. J. Haematol. 1994; 87 (Suppl 1): 83.
- Bosanquet AG, Burlton AR, Bell PB, Pleiotropic drug resistance with collateral sensitivity induced by treatment in CLL is unrelated to classical resistance mechanisms, Eg. MDR, GST, MRP. 2nd International Symposium, Drug Resistance in Leukemia and Lymphoma, 1995.
- Bosanquet AG, Burlton AR, Bell PB. In vitro radioresponse by DiSC assay of malignant cells using a laboratory cell irradiator. Proceedings of the Röntgen Centenary Congress 1995; 456.
- Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Burlton AR, Whiteley G, Bosanquet MI. Ex vivo drug sensitivity testing aids informed decision making for drug therapy of leukaemia and cancer. Report of: Scientific Basis for Health Services, International Conference, 2–4 October, 1995.
- Bosanquet AG, Burlton AR, Bell PB. Ex vivo activity profile of gamma-linolenic acid and cross-resistance with anthracyclines, antimetabolites, alkylators, steroids, vincristine and radiosensitivity. Proceedings of American Association for Cancer Research 1997; 38:104 (#694).
- Bosanquet AG, Bavin P, Burlton AR, Bell PB. Ex vivo drug sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia by apoptotic drug sensitivity (ADS) assay. Blood 2000; 96(11):123A).
- Bosanquet, AG, Bavin P, Burlton AR, Bell PB. Ex vivo drug sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia by apoptotic drug sensitivity (ADS) assay. Blood 2000; 96(11):123A.
- Sturm, I, Bosanquet AG, Bell PB, Burlton AR, Daniel PT. ATM in B-CLL: Relation to p53, disease prognosis and drug sensitivity. Blood 2003; 102(11):325B.
Creation science publications
- Evolution and the Christian Faith: Theistic evolution in the light of Scripture.
- Does Evolution Explain Everything About Life?
Selected Creation magazine articles
- How cells handle heme, Creation 44(1):46–47, 2022.
- Your ingenious immune system, Creation 43(3):20–24, 2021.
- Fish giving birth?, Creation 41(4):55, 2019.
- Hagfish slimy superpower—‘ancient’ protective design, Creation 41(3):52–53, 2019.
- Electric spider flight, Creation 41(2):56, 2019.
- Walk like a skate?, Creation 41(1):39, 2019.
- Evolutionary art?, Creation 38(1):44–47, 2016.
- A New Weed Species: Does it prove Creation Wrong? Creation 25(3):27, 2003.
- Evolution Revolution, Creation 25(3):31, 2003.
- Bishop Bell’s Brass Behemoths! Creation 25(4):40–44, 2003.
- Genetic Engineers Unwind Species Barrier. But have they Reversed Evolution? Creation 25(4):52–53, 2003.
- Resurrecting a ‘Prehistoric’ horse, Creation 26(2):46–51, 2004.
- Horse-shoe Crab Meets ET? Creation 26(4):24–25, 2004.
- From Pagan to ‘New Age’ Missionary, Creation 26(4):52–55, 2004.
- The Super-Senses of Oilbirds—Bizarre Birds Elude an Evolutionary Explanation, Creation 28(1):38–41, 2005.
- ‘Evolutionary Stasis’, Double-speak and Propaganda, Creation 28(2):38–40, 2006.
- Surgeon With a Mission: To Make the Evolution Myth Extinct, Creation 29(1):52–55, 2006.
- The tale of the hummingbird and the starling, Creation 31(1):20–21, 2009. (Pre-publication version)
- Of Snakes, Lizards and Mosasaurs—Evolutionists Puzzle over Snake Origins, Creation 31(3):15–17, 2009.
- Snakes: Designed to Kill? Creation 31(4):47, September 2009.
- Expert engineer eschews “evolutionary design”, Creation 32 (1):35-37, January 2010.
- Rock-solid butter! Creation 33(1):40–41, January 2011.
- Mudskippers—marvels of the mud-flats! Creation 34(2):48–50, 2012.
- Lying (and more)—as a survival strategy, Creation 35(4):35–37, 2013.
- Sunstones and Viking magic, Creation 35(4):50–51, 2013.
- Up, up and away! (interview: Flight Lieutenant Richard Snowdon), Creation 36(2):32–34, 2014.
- Polypterus: Teaching a fish to walk? Creation 37(3):16–17, 2015.
- Perils of Theistic Evolution, Creation 37(3):44–47, 2015. (Pre-publication version)
- Fish dislike heavy metal: How trout cope with toxic pollution, Creation 37(4):14–15, 2015.
- Evolutionary art? A fly with insects painted on its wings! Creation 38(1):44–47, 2016.
- Dread of man: part 1—hermeneutics, cultural evolution, and biblical history, Journal of Creation 35(2):53–60, 2021.
- Dread of man: part 2—fear, hunting, and human diet, Journal of Creation 35(2):61–68, 2021.
- Apoptosis: cell ‘death’ reveals Creation, Journal of Creation 16(1):90–102, 2002.
- The Non-evolution of Apoptosis, Journal of Creation 18(1):86–96, 2004.
Perspectives and other articles:
- The Portrayal of Creationists by their Evolutionist Detractors, Journal of Creation 16(2):46–53, 2002.
- Pattern of Programmed Cell Death in Bat Wing Membrane—Support for Evolution? Journal of Creation 21(1):3–4, 2007.
- Standard snake evolution story stymied by spate of fossil discoveries, Journal of Creation 29(3):8–10, 2015.
- Adam and Eve in historical survey—learn but be leery, Journal of Creation 34(2):35–38, 2020. Review of The Rise and Fall of Adam & Eve, by Stephen Greenblatt (2017).
- Is there purpose in evolution?, Journal of Creation 33(1):18–22, 2019. Review of Is There Purpose in Biology? The cost of existence and the God of love, by Denis Alexander (2018).
- Evolution for Dummies, Journal of Creation 16(1):36–40, 2002. Review of Why Elephants have Big Ears. Understanding the Patterns of Life on Earth, by Chris Lavers (2001).
- Contentious Fossils, Journal of Creation 17(2):29–33, 2003. Review of Bone of Contention: Is Evolution True? By Sylvia Baker (2003).
- Magnifying Evolutionary Problems, Journal of Creation 18(3):41–45, 2004. Review of Evolution under the Microscope, by David Swift (2002).
- Debunking the Molecules-to-man Myth, Journal of Creation 19(3):45–50, 2005. Review of One Small Speck to Man, by Vij Sodera (2003).
- Atheist with a Mission, Journal of Creation 21(2):28–34, 2007.
- The ‘problem’ of evil and the supremacy of Scripture, review of The End of Christianity by William Dembski.
- Evolution Answers Book? Journal of Creation 26(1):31–36, April 2012. Review of The magic of reality, by Richard Dawkins (2011).
Apologetics and relevance
- History denial
- Evidence for human evolution?
- Teaching ‘original goodness’ is anti-Gospel
- Sin before the Fall of Adam?
- From the mouths of sceptics
- Homo Deus and the worship of man
- Biased broadcaster promotes a liberal agenda—the Noble Liar
- Evolution: What the experts say …
- Are we grasping the nettle with our apologetics?
- Nature programmes, science and God
- Jesus, just ‘a man of his time’?
- Philosophy, ethics and belief in God
- “Scoffers will come in the last days”
- Evidence for Creation: Intelligent Answers for Open Minds
- Terrorism and Europe’s spiritual vacuum
- Proclaiming Creation in a scientific age
- Resisting the secular slide
- Battle for Britain: A battle for hearts and minds
- Carrying the Creation Torch—An ongoing responsibility
- Christopher Hitchens: Staring Death in the Face—And the difference that Biblical Creation makes!
- Don’t believe evolution—just accept it!
- Lying—a survival strategy?
- Pseudoscience and the stifling of debate
- Skeptic puzzled by ‘Question Evolution’ campaign
- Sickness in the Church!
- Still fighting God! Prominent evolutionist reaches 100th birthday (Ernst Mayr)
- The BBC TV series Darwin’s Dangerous Idea
- The humanist apostles’ creed
- True versus false humility
- ‘Useful idiot’—who, me?
- A high view of Scripture? Second response re: objections from ‘Atheist spat’ article
- A disaster of ‘biblical proportions’
- Bird behaviour beliefs overturned
- Genetic engineers unwind species barrier
- Is the dog’s ‘collar bone’ vestigial?
- Baby snake fossil further frustrates evolution
- Deadly plant’s flowers in amber deadly to evolution
- A four-legged fossil snake
- ‘Oldest snake’ fossils found: Evolution? the fossils still say no!
- Book review: Darwin’s Doubt by Stephen C. Meyer
- Once upon a time in Northern Ireland
- Homo habilis hacked from the family tree
- ‘Walking with Beasts’—Virtually Fact Free
- ‘Evolution explains everything about life’
- Don’t believe evolution—just accept it!
- Creation commotion in Dutch Parliament
- The humanist apostles’ creed
- Dawkins gloats over boost to evolutionary dogma in schools
- Theistic evolution and the doctrine of death
- Evolution a replacement religion?
- Evolution: a message of hope?
- Evolution and the Christian faith
- The Unstoppable evolutionary juggernaut?
- Free to believe? On the Scriptures, biblical creation and State censorship
- Christians sidelining the Creator?
- Does Creation really matter? Restoring Confidence in the Bible and its Author.
- Evolution and the breakup of Christendom
- From fables to truth
- Perils of Theistic Evolution
- The ‘problem’ of evil and the supremacy of Scripture (Review of End of Christianity)
- The problem of evil: pre-Fall animal death?
- Designed atmospheres? The Earth and other planets
- Pre-Flood predatory dinosaur interactions and the fossil record
- Clueless about consciousness
- Giving airtime to atheists?
- Is a mutation of PCSK9 beneficial?
- Respectful disagreement?
- Seeing is believing for evolutionists—but what is it that they really observe?
- Stuart Burgess wins the 2019 James Clayton Prize
- Olympic Gold-winning bike design
- A Dutch treat (ministry in The Netherlands)
- From frog to prince? … Not all scientists are right! (interview with Philip Bell, EO Visie)
- I believe what Jesus believed (interview & personal testimony)
- Let the Rocks Speak: Evidence for the Flood from the fossils and geology, CMI
- Apemen, ‘Missing Links’ & the Bible, CMI
- Evolution Impossible, CMI
- The Case for Creation, Vij Sodera Production
- Battle for the Mind, CMI
- Design, Death and Suffering, CMI
- Evolutie? Kijk naar de Feiten! (Dutch; Evolution? Face the Facts!), Mediagroep in Genesis.
- Het Belang van Genesis in de Godsdienstige Opvoeding (Dutch; The importance of Genesis in the education of faith), Mediagroep in Genesis.
- Hoe kan ik weten dat God Bestaat? (Dutch; How can I know God exists), MiG.
- Schepping in Zes Letterlijke Dagen? (Dutch; Creation in Six Literal Days?), MiG.
- Science, Scripture & the Importance of Worldview in Education and Using Scientific Discoveries to Open Minds and Build Faith (Dutch slides, English speaking), MiG.
- Waarom de Schepping zo Belangrijk is (Dutch; Why Creation Matters), MiG.
- Dinosauriërs (Dutch ; Walking with Dinosaurs), MiG.
- Het heelal verkondigt… (Dutch; The Universe Declares…), MiG.
- De grootheid van God … en jij? (Dutch; The Majesty of God …and you?), MiG.
- Zondvloed, Fossielen & Geloof (Dutch; The Flood, Fossils & Faith), MiG.